Without the Nile River, all of Egypt would be desert. Only about an 2.5cm of rain falls throughout Egypt each year. But each summer, the Nile river rises because of rains at its source, far to the south in Ethiopia. When this happens, floods cover the river’s valleys, leaving sediments needed for trees, plants and crops to grow.
Egypt is often divided into two sections – Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. The sections are named this way because the Nile flows from south to north. The river empties into the Mediterranean Sea, on the country’s north coast.
Southern Egypt’s landscape contains low mountains and desert. Northern Egypt has wide valleys near the Nile, and desert to the east and west. North of Cairo (Egypt’s capital city) is the sprawling, triangular Nile River Delta. This fertile land is completely covered with farms.
You can find more interesting facts about Egypt and the Pharaohs at National Geographic for Kids – http://www.ngkids.co.uk/history/ten-facts-about-ancient-egypt